Rules of introduction
Hot line for forage conservation

Rules of introduction

Can I buy only a part of machines required for the Permskaya technology of in-line haylage making, for example the wrapper and the cutting machine, and to use available equipment for rest operations?

In the Permskaya technology of in-line haylage making all operations are equally important — otherwise you won’t get high-quality forage.

R12/155 SUPER baker — Herbage pressing

Density of roll pressing must be at least 350 kg/1 m³. It is required to displace air to the extent possible. Leftover oxygen is enough for herbage of such density so that residual respiration of plants consumed it having replaced by carbon dioxide. In case of failure to meet this requirement in the future forage bacteria will be generated.

R12/155 SUPER baler contracts herbage to required rates by 43 pressing rolls — it is a unique design feature of the machine manufactured by Krasnokamsky RMZ.

SPEEDWAY 12 high-speed bale wrapper — roll wrapping

Spindles of SPEEDWAY 12 wrapper are kinematically interconnected and rotate with different speeds. The film is stretched to 70% when passing between them. It is the limit value at which the film is stretching but not tears. Thus, agricultural stretch film is not excessively consumed, and package of roll is solid, free of holes and damages.

IRK-01 and IRK-01.1 roll cutting machines — forage cutting

When haylage ripens, the roll is opened removing the film. It holds its shape not falling into pieces, therefore it is not required to spread it to give forage to animals. I t is difficult to do it manually. IRK-01 and IRK-01.1 roll cutting machines unreel the roll and cut pressed herbage for equal sections at the same time.

Uniformity of cutting is crucial for bacterial population of animals’ digestive tract. Here is an example: on one of farms located in Perm Krai, IRK-01 cutter got out of order, and to feed cows a farmer had to use haylage grinded in mixer (ragged mass). As a result, milk yield reduced by 1,800 grams per head a day. Later the experience was intentionally repeated, the result was similar. This fact proves that uniform thickness of haylage section favourably affect digestion of animals and guarantees sustainable growth of milk yields.

In addition, it is essential that cutters of the Krasnokamsky RMZ are able to chaff any bales: not only haylage but also hay and straw.

If your fleet includes machines able to guarantee the mentioned result at each stage, surely you can buy selected equipment from the range manufactured by the Krasnokamsky RMZ. However, you must be sure that your equipment issues the product of required quality.
Is it possible to press rolls by PR-F baler?
Basic range of PR-F balers is intended for hay — it is not able to generate sufficient density of herbage in the roll, too much air is left in it. Residual respiration of plant cells is not enough to consume oxygen and to replace it for carbon dioxide. Unabsorbed air will cause development of pathogenic flora, and the forage will be spoiled.
Why must hay be made early in the morning? What if we take to a field later?

Our ancestors said, - Make hay while the sun shines. They did not know what is exactly occurring with a plant during a day, but they notices that animals like hay made early in the morning.

During a day chemical composition of leaves is changing. The greatest amount of nutritive substances in herbage is accumulated at 4.00-6.00 in the morning, and the lowest — at 12.00 to 4.00 p.m. You can mow at any time you want but nutritive value of forage will be far less than its natural potential.

In addition, it is important that plants mowed in the morning, when dew is on plant leaves, wilts quicker than herbage mowed in the daytime. Dew is not only atmospheric moisture fallen on leaves, but moisture that is released by leaves — in this way the plant actively gets rid of water. That means that by its inner resources the plant itself supports our intention to wilt it quicker.

Why is it required to perform the whole cycle of works within a day?

Each extra hour of prewilting of green crops is lost sugar. If you do not pack forage in rolls in due time, sugar will be eaten by cells of the plant itself and bacteria living on leaves. The longer you wilt herbage — the more malignant bacteria will generate in it and the worse forage will be stored.

And another thing. The longer we wilt herbage, les residual respiration is left in the plant. But it is required to remove oxygen left in the roll. Quickly wilted herbage packed in the agricultural stretch film continues to breathe for some time, consumes oxygen and replaces it with carbon dioxide. In this way air-free space is created that is the key element of maturing and storage of forage.

Is it possible to mow in windrows?
Mowing in windrows is possible subject to yield of herbage of up to 150 hundredweight per ha. However, it is required to remember that the you will have to turn the windrow over, otherwise you will get a sandwich: hay is at the top, silage is in between, and decomposed mass is in the bottom. In case of better yield it is required to mow in swath to ensure good ventilation of ready haylage.
Is it possible to do without turning?

No, you cannot do without turning! Uneven humidity of herbage brings farmer’s efforts to nought at the rest stages of the technology.

Within the first hour upon mowing herbage actively releases water, and if not to turn it humidity will not vaporize but stick among leaves. In areas of its accumulation moist “nests” are generated where pathogenic microorganisms are developing— the whole forage lot can be spoiled.

If moisture remains on leaves, rolls may freeze.

Can 11-meter reaper be used for mowing?

If you mow grain varieties, then a large reaper can be used but only along with a fluffer. It distributes mowed grass, and upon prewilting fork is used to collect it in swathes of required width. If the fluffer is not available, after the reaper a swath size makes difference — when the 11-meter reaper is used, the swath will not dry out evenly.

For bean cultures a grass-mowing machine with a conditioner must be used.

How is it possible to ensure even prewilting of legume grasses?
Bean cultures must be mowed by a mower-conditioner. A stem must be beaten in 3-4 places but not broken. Thus, both stems and leaves can be evenly wilted. In this way it is possible to prewilt stems and leaves evenly.
How to make rolls of an even cylindrical form?
You should move snaking along the swathe, changing motion pattern of a tractor with a baler each 10-20 meters to fill in baler’s chamber with herbage evenly.
I have bought the baler with a chopping function but herbage is not chopped. How can I solve this problem?
To guarantee chopping of herbage by blades of the baler it is essential that plant stems lie along the swath, but it largely depends on fork operation. If your baler guarantees density of 350 kg/1 m³, in this case there is nothing to worry about long-stem herbage. Anyway, its density is enough to preserve forage.
Does the film used to pack haylage rolls tear?

The film can be damaged by birds interested in blossom clusters and insects left on grass. Most often it happens with rolls collected at later vegetative stages.

The film is often disrupted at joints of rolls due to its poor quality. Such areas must be glued up with a special repair scotch tape.

Is it possible to glue up holes in rolls by usual scotch tape?
The usual scotch tape is gas permeable, it will not protect against penetration of oxygen.
May I pack hay got caught by the rain in the agricultural stretch film?
No, there is no help for it — processes of herbage decomposition have already started, and the film will not help to preserve the product.
What humidity level must be reached to start packing of haylage?

To guarantee good quality of haylage its humidity must reach the level of 52%. At lower humidity feeds are also kept quite well, but it will rather be so called “soft” or “Moscow” hay.

There are recorded cases when farmers conserve packed silage i.e. succulent feed. But it is possible only for particular species and bacterial number in herbage, and subject to particular content of sugars in it.

How thick must be the agricultural stretch film?

Perfect choice is the film 25 micron thick.

Silotite Pro five-layer dense and wear-proof film (Belgium) 20 micron thick can also be used: it has already been stretched under special conditions and has extended length as compared to standard packing films. Additional length allows to pack a greater number of rolls with less breaks to change spools.

How to measure crop yield?

You should take a wooden frame of 25 by 25 cm, select 4 areas at a field with typical grass stand and cut plants 6 cm high from the ground level.

Then all collected herbage must be weighted, and an obtained number - multiplied by 100. Thus, you will get crop yield of herbage in hundredweight per ha.